The 19th century in the US was all about urbanization. And in great thanks to the Industrial Revolution.
Agricultural machinery made farmers more productive causing would-be farmers and field workers to head for other employment opportunities, mostly in cities.
Enterprises moved from cottages to factories. Large factories required workers. Workers created the need for nearby housing which then created the need for consumer goods and services. This led to the growth of department stores. Departments stores, then, also needed workers to stock the shelves. Education and entertainment also grew in demand as cities grew.
Immigration and nearby water were also attributable to the rise of 19th century cities. Water transportation was cheap, travel by horse and trolley were expensive, and trains had not yet realized their expansionary potential.
So, yes, US urbanization is a by-product of the Industrial Revolution. The 20th century witnessed the decentralization of these urban areas, mostly due to rising worker incomes, the electric streetcar, travel by rail, and other newer technologies.